Social Icons

Monday, September 28, 2015

Burp Suite : Integrated platform for Web Application Security

1.   Burp Suite is an excellent easy-to-use integrated platform for web application security that includes multiple tools seamlessly integrated to test every component and aspect of modern web applications. Whether you need to verify the robustness of your authentication mechanism, the predictability of your session tokens, or the input validation checkpoints present in your application, Burp is often compared to Swiss-army knife for security practitioners since it offers a horde of features . Not only does it allow in-depth manual assessments, but it also combines automated techniques to enumerate and analyze web application resources.Burp has been developed by PortSwigger Ltd. and is available in two editions:

- Burp Free
- Burp Professional

In-fact,the free version is perfect to start for beginners as it contains all the basic tools to find at least few first vulnerabilities.In its simplest way to explain, Burp is a local web proxy that allows to intercept, inspect, and modify HTTP/S requests and responses between the user's browser and the target website. While the user navigates through the web application, the tool acquires details on all visited pages, scripts,parameters, and other components. The traffic between the browser and the server can be eventually visualized, analyzed, modified, and repeated multiple times. The different tools included in Burp Suite can be easily distinguished by the upper tabs:

- Proxy: It allows to intercept and modify all web traffic.
- Target: This tool allows to aggregate all web application resources, thus guiding the user throughout the security test.
- Scanner: A complete web application security scanner, available in the Professional version only.
- Intruder: Burp Intruder allows to customize and automate web requests. 
- Spider: Automatic crawler that can be used to discover new pages and parameters.
- Sequencer: Used for verifying the randomness and predictability of security tokens, cookies, and more.
- Decoder: It allows to encode and decode data using multiple encoding schemes 
- Comparer: A visual diff tool that can be used to detect changes between web pages.
- Repeater: A simple yet powerful tool that can be used to manually modify and re-issue web requests.

How to go about Installation ?

- A minimum disk space of at least 200 MB is required.
- Required memory is at least 1 GB
- Burp Suite works on Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux
- Software components: An updated Oracle Java Runtime Environment is required to run Burp Suite. 

Downloading Burp Suite from ?

In the download folder where typically this file gets downloaded,create a burpsuite folder and mov this file to this folder for executing.

Launching Burp Suite in Linux

At the terminal type the following inside the pwd as the new burpsuite folder u created above :

java -Xmx2g -jar burpsuite_v1.4.01.jar

Volatility Framework Command : Using dlllist - dlldump to extricate DLLfile details

 This post will share an example to run the two volatility terminal commands including dllllist and dlldump  to display a process's loaded DLLs.

Before I proceed ahead,I would assume that you have installed volatility in your Linux system(in my case I am using UBUNTU, Installation explained at my earlier post at and you have a RAM dump of the OS u desire to analyse.In my case here I have taken the RAM dump of a Windows 7 OS as explained here at


dlllist is used to display a process's loaded DLLs.DLLs are automatically added to this list when a process calls LoadLibrary (or some derivative such as LdrLoadDll). --profile=Win7SP0x86 -f windows7_image.raw dlllist
To display the DLLs for a specific process instead of all processes, there is option to use the switch -p or --pid filter as shown below: --profile=Win7SP0x86 -f windows7_image.raw dlllist --pid=1892

To display the DLLs for a process that is hidden or unlinked by a rootkit, first use the psscan to get the physical offset of the EPROCESS object and then: --profile=Win7SP0x86 -f windows7_image.raw dlllist --offset=0x04a291a8
(Click on the image to ENLARGE)


dlldump command is used to extract a DLL from a process's memory space and dump it to disk for analysis.The syntax is nearly the same as what has been seen earlier with any command.This plugin provisions the following :

- Dump all DLLs from a hidden/unlinked process (with --offset=OFFSET)
- Dump all DLLs from a specific process (with --pid=PID)
- Dump all DLLs from all processes
- Dump a PE from anywhere in process memory (with --base=BASEADDR), this option is useful for extracting hidden DLLs

To specify an output directory, use --dump-dir=DIR or -d DIR. --profile=Win7SP0x86 -f windows7_image.raw dlldump --dump-dir output

where output is the name of directory where u get the dll dump

the output directory will be seen as seen below :

More at :

Sunday, September 27, 2015

Volatility Framework Command : Using pslist - pstree - psscan to identify process details from mem dump

This post will share an example to run the three volatility terminal commands including pslist, pstree and psscan

Before I proceed ahead,I would assume that you have installed volatility in your Linux system(in my case I am using UBUNTU,Installation explained at my earlier post at and you have a RAM dump of the OS u desire to analyse.In my case here I have taken the RAM dump of a Windows 7 OS as explained here at

Usage as follows :


The command pslist will be useful for any forensic prelim inquiry to find out the processes being run on the pc at the likely time of incident.The pslist command is used to list the processes of a system and it does not detect hidden or unlinked processes."pslist" module utilizes the same algorithm as the tasklist command that would be executed on the live computer. And also, Windows Task Manager uses the same approach as well.The command "pslist" traverses the list of active process structures that the Windows kernel maintains.The screen shot below shows a task manager activity of a windows PC i am using for test.Subsequently I have taken a fresh dump at this time and then analysed this dump with volatility on UBUNTU to find the process details which actually come out as the same as seen in the screenshots below :

Windows TASK MANAGER as seen in Windows OS
The command usage at terminal syntax goes like this : --profile=Win7SP0x86 -f windows_memory.raw pslist

Click on image to ENLARGE

Click on image to ENLARGE
Click on image to ENLARGE

The columns display the offset, process name, process ID, the parent process ID, number of threads, number of handles, and date/time when the process started. The offset is a virtual address by default, but the physical offset can be obtained with the -P switch as seen in the command below with screenshot. --profile=Win7SP0x86 -f windows_memory.raw pslist -P

(Output with -P Switch)
Click on image to ENLARGE


pstree command is used to view the process listing in tree form and enumerates processes using the same technique as pslist, so it will also not show hidden or unlinked processes. Child process are indicated using indention and periods.SCreen shot of output and syntax as below : --profile=Win7SP0x86 -f windows_memory.raw pstree

Click on image to ENLARGE


psscan is used to enumerate processes by pool tag scanning and can find processes that previously terminated (inactive) and processes that have been hidden or unlinked by a rootkit. Syntax and screenshot of output as follows: --profile=Win7SP0x86 -f win7.dmp psscan

Click on image to ENLARGE

Friday, September 25, 2015

Volatility Command : Using kdbgscan/kprcscan to scan for potential KDBG/KPCR structures

This post will share an example to run the two volatility terminal commands including kdbgscan and kprcscan.

Before I proceed ahead,I would assume that you have installed volatility in your Linux system(in my case I am using UBUNTU) (Installation explained at my earlier post at and you have a RAM dump of the OS u desire to analyse.In my case here I have taken the RAM dump of a Windows 7 OS as explained here at

Basic intro about these two commands :


This command is used to scan for potential KDBG structures and is meant to positively identify the correct profile of the system and the correct KDBG (kernel debugger block) address. It simply scans for KDBG header signatures linked to the profiles in Volatility.

Usage : 

python --profile=Win7SP0x86 -f filename.raw kdbgscan

Screen shot executing the above command shown below :

This command is used to scan for potential KPCR(Kernel Processor Control Region) structures. A KPCR is a data structure used by the kernel to store the processor-specific data. Kpcrscan searches for and dumps potential KPCR values. On a multi-core system, each processor has its own KPCR. Therefore, ideally  one should see at least as many KPCR addresses as there are processors on the machine from which the memory dump was acquired.Usage as follows :

python --profile=Win7SP0x86 -f win_image.raw kpcrscan

Screen shot with output as below :

Volatility Command : Using IMAGEINFO to find type of System Image

1.   After installing Volatility as I gave details in my post here,next we need to start exploiting the power of Volatility.In my next posts ahead I would decipher usage of the general commands used for Volatility.To start with I initiate with IMAGEINFO command whose output tells the suggested profile that you should pass as the parameter to --profile=PROFILE; there may be more than one profile suggestion if profiles are closely related. One can figure out which one is more appropriate by checking the "Image Type" field, which is blank for Service Pack 0 and filled in for other Service Packs.

2.  Next few screen-shots show how I have taken the RAM dump of Windows 7 OS with the help of DUMPIT utility that I downloaded from here.Dumpit vastly simplifies memory acquisition. Effectively Dumpit combines win32dd and win64dd into one tool and is so simple to use even a non-technical user could do acquisition from a USB key. The dump can then be analyzed using VOLATILITY.

3.   Firstly,I show u the windows screen here with the Dumpit file on desktop which I simply click one to get the dump.
 I get the following screen and I click YES
 Further yes to the command prompt screen starts the dump download as seen below :
 I get a success message here and the dump is ready for analysis.
 The .raw file that is generated,I move it to ubuntu for analysis which has Volatility installed.At the terminal I type the command as :
python -f file_name.raw imageinfo

and in a few minutes I get the profile suggested as Win7SP0x86 / Win7SP1x86

Thursday, September 24, 2015

[SOLVED] : Failed to load unit 'HGCM' (VERR_INVALID_PARAMETER)

In one of the recent updates of Virtual Box I got this error on start of the saved state of virtual machine.The error said :

Failed to load unit 'HGCM' (VERR_INVALID_PARAMETER)

The resolve is simple ,no stunts involved, as follows :

Simply right click on the machine and choose "DISCARD SAVED STATE"

Thats it...restart the machine,it should resolve.

Wednesday, September 23, 2015

[SOLVED]: /sbin/mount.vboxsf mounting failed with the error protocol error ubuntu

1. It had never happened in recent past and every time I used to mount the share folder for the guest OS in virtual box it used to happen vide this command :

sudo mount.vboxsf sharedfolder /mnt/foldername

where sharedfolder is the new folder you have created inside guest OS home directory in virtual box ~ ie /home to be mounted with another folder from host OS as foldername here

but today it showed an error with the following message :

/sbin/mount.vboxsf mounting failed with the error protocol error
as seen below :

tried everything around with the commands but didn't get resolved before I attempted to do the more simpler thing of going to the pwd of the folder where I created it to be mounted and typed the same command without path

surprisingly it worked!!!!

Tuesday, September 22, 2015

Volatility-Advanced Memory Forensics Framework : Installation@Ubuntu

1.   The Volatility Framework is a completely open collection of tools, implemented in Python for the extraction of digital artifacts from volatile memory (RAM) samples. Volatility is a memory forensics framework, to analyse ram memory dumps for Windows, Linux, and Mac. In order to analyse a operating system’s RAM memory in Volatility, you need to build the corresponding operating system’s profile.The extraction techniques are performed completely independent of the system being investigated but offer unprecedented visibility into the runtime state of the system. The framework is intended to introduce people to the techniques and complexities associated with extracting digital artifacts from volatile memory samples and provide a platform for further work into this exciting area of research.Vide this post, I am sharing how to install volatility in Ubuntu 12.04 in a step wise manner.The post includes screen-shots and ready to shoot terminal commands for installing other dependent libraries.

Firstly : Installing Dependencies

sudo apt-get install subversion pcregrep libpcre++-dev python-dev -y

Secondly : Installing PyCrypto

First download PyCRypto from

Go to ~/..../Downloads/

tar -zxvf pycrypto-2.6.1.tar.gz

cd pycrypto-2.6.1

python build

sudo python build install

Thirdly: Installing Distrom
Distrom ,a disassemble library for x86/AMD64 can be downloaded from

Goto downloads where the file is likely downloaded :


cd distorm3/

python build

python build install

Fourthly: Installing Yara 

Volatility needs another important dependency known as Yara,that can be installed as follows:


tar -zxvf yara-1.4.tar.gz

cd yara-1.4/

sudo ./configure

sudo make

sudo make install

Fifthly : Installing Yara-Python

Download the tar.gz from

tar -zxvf yara-python-1.4a.tar.gz

cd yara-python-1.4a/

python build

python build install

sudo echo “/usr/local/lib” >> /etc/

sudo ldconfig
Now through with the installation of dependencies,we go ahead to install Volatility after we download the tar ball from

~/Desktop/F0r3ns1c5/Memory_Forensics/New/volatility-2.3.1$ python build

~/Desktop/F0r3ns1c5/Memory_Forensics/New/volatility-2.3.1$ python build install

The installation is complete now and you should get a similar screen as seen below on running the command python -h

Sunday, September 20, 2015

Online Malware Analysis Tools : Listed with links

1.   Typically analyzing malware requires a great deal of knowledge in computers and expects basic knowledge of terminal commands,configuring the tool correct and right usage of advanced tools. As seen in my last post about Cuckoo usage and configuration,it is actually complex and confusing at times,now what if one can use Cuckoo without doing anything like installation,no configuration,no testing and can directly use Cuckoo directly for a sample file analysis.As we realize the power online tools,its becomes actually easier for anyone to analyze a file’s behavior by simply uploading the file to the free on-line services for automated analysis and review the detailed and yet easy to understand report.This way not only the analyst gets a quick report and analysis but more importantly he gets a variety of reports which can be compared and analyzed further leading to expedited pace of understanding and clarity of the malware architecture and working.Here I list out my choices of best on-line file/malware analyzers that can be used for free with address and screenshots of sample usage....

ThreatExpert is an advanced automated threat analysis system designed to analyze and report the behavior of computer viruses, worms, trojans, adware, spyware, and other security-related risks in a fully automated mode.In only a few minutes ThreatExpert can process a sample and generate a highly detailed threat report with the level of technical detail that matches or exceeds antivirus industry standards such as those normally found in online virus encyclopedias. 

3.   Wepawet at

Wepawet is a free service, for non-commercial organizations, to detect and analyze web-based threats. It currently handles Flash, JavaScript, and PDF files.But the upload size of the file is limited to 2 Mb and below.

4.   IObit Cloud at

IObit Cloud is an advanced automated threat analysis system. It uses the latest Cloud Computing technology and Heuristic Analyzing mechanic to analyze the behavior of spyware, adware, trojans, keyloggers, bots, worms, hijackers and other security-related risks in a fully automated mode

5.   Comodo Instant Malware Analysis at

Comodo Instant Malware Analysis is one of the easier to use and understand online sandbox service wherein no submission form is required nor an email address nor solving a CAPTCHA code. Simply browse the file that you want to analyze in Comodo sandbox, tick the box to agree with their terms and click the Upload file button. The file will then be analyzed in real time and the report page will continuously refresh by itself until the analysis has been completed.

6.     ViCheck at is an advanced malware detection engine designed to decrypt and extract malicious executables from common document formats such as MS Office Word, Powerpoint, Excel, Access, or Adobe PDF documents. ViCheck will detect the majority of embedded executables in documents as well as common exploits which download malware from the internet.ViCheck is a free service designed to help the public detect new sophisticated malware which is often difficult to detect with common commercial anti-virus programs.

  7.   Anubis at

Anubis is another popular online service to analyze unknown Windows executable files. Four report formats (HTML, XML, PDF and Text) are available to download once the analysis has been complete.

8.   GFI Threattrack at

GFI SandBox is meant for OEM or cloud providers and fortunately they’ve created a webpage that offers free analysis called ThreatTrack which uses their sandbox technology. ThreatTrack supports analyzing any Windows executable file, office documents, PDF files and even flash ads that is mostly not accepted by other online sandboxes.

 9.   Joe sandbox cloud at

Joe Sandbox is the automated malware analysis system which implements any state of the art program analysis technology from coarse to fine grained including dynamic, static and hybrid. Joe Sandbox’s analysis spectrum enables to discover any behavior including hidden or obfuscated parts.

10.   EUREKA:An Automated Malware Binary Analysis Service at

Eureka is a binary static analysis preparation framework. It implements a novel binary unpacking strategy based on statistical  bigram analysis and coarse-grained execution tracing. Eureka incorporates advanced API deobfuscation capabilities to facilitate the structural analysis of the underlying malware logic.

11.   XecScan   at

The Xecure Lab Scanner (XecScan) gives the security community and general public on-demand analysis of any suspicious document file where no installation or registration is required to enjoy the service. Though it’s free, XecScan is capable of finding advanced malware, zero-day, and targeted APT attacks embedded in common file formats.

12.    Malwr at [Based on Cuckoo]

Malwr is a free malware analysis service and community launched in January 2011. One can submit files to it and receive the results of a complete dynamic analysis back.Malwr is operated by volunteer security professionals with the exclusive intent to help the community. It's not associated or influenced by any commercial or government organization of any sort.Malwr is mainly based on an open source malware analysis tool called Cuckoo Sandbox as explained in my last post at

In fact as you google,you will find thousands of links and websites offering free online malware analysis but one has to be careful too while submitting any file to such happy analyzing for now.....